Proudly serving Wesley Chapel, New Tampa and surrounding areas.

Overview of Indoor Air Pollution: A Human Health Perspective

Last updated: 02-16-2021

Read original article here

Overview of Indoor Air Pollution: A Human Health Perspective

Overview of Indoor Air Pollution: A Human Health Perspective
Part of the Environmental Challenges and Solutions book series (ECAS)
In the modern world, humans spend more than 80 percent of their routine lives in indoors rather than outdoors. In recent decades, the improved living standards in indoor environments like houses, commercial offices, and similar places with decorations, refurbishment activities, remodeling, and new furniture emits toxic gases. Indoor Air Pollutants (IAP) comprises carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matters, volatile organic compounds (formaldehyde, benzene, ethylene, etc.), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (biphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[c]fluorine, etc.). Inhalation of these pollutants are likely to cause mortalities and morbidities illness attributed to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary, and lung cancer diseases in human. According to World Health Organization, around 3.8 million populations die in a year prematurely from illness attributable to indoor pollution, i.e., pneumonia (27%), ischemic heart disease (27%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20%), stroke (18%) and lung cancer (8%). Under these circumstances, mitigation measures are essential to seal off pollutants from the indoor environment for the protection of occupants from exposure accounting for advanced airflow distribution, photocatalytic oxidation techniques, and green system within indoor includes phytoremediation and biofiltration techniques. Hence, this chapter aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of current information regarding the characterization of indoor air pollutants, its concentration levels, health risk assessment, mitigation strategies, and sustainable remediation intended to reduce the impact of indoor air pollution on human health.
Indoor air pollutants Pollution monitoring Human health Risk assessment Remediation 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Adhikari S, Mahapatra PS, Pokheral CP, Puppala SP (2020) Cookstove smoke impact on ambient air quality and probable consequences for human health in rural locations of southern Nepal. Int J Environ Res Public Health 17(2):550 PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Agarwal P, Sarkar M, Chakraborty B, Banerjee T (2019) Phytoremediation of air pollutants: prospects and challenges. In: Pandey VC, Bauddh K (eds) Phytomanagement of polluted sites. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp 221–241 CrossRef Google Scholar
Akif ARI, ARI PE, Yeni̇soy-Karakaş, S. (2020) Source characterization and risk assessment of occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a barbecue restaurant. Build Environ 174:106791 Google Scholar
Akther T, Ahmed M, Shohel M, Ferdousi FK, Salam A (2019) Particulate matters and gaseous pollutants in indoor environment and association of ultra-fine particulate matters (PM 1) with lung function. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(6):5475–5484 CrossRef Google Scholar
Alghamdi MA, Hassan SK, Alzahrani NA, Almehmadi FM, Khoder MI (2019) Risk assessment and implications of schoolchildren exposure to classroom heavy metals particles in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16(24):5017 PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Ali N, Van den Eede N, Dirtu AC, Neels H, Covaci A (2012) Assessment of human exposure to indoor organic contaminants via dust ingestion in Pakistan. Indoor Air 22(3):200–211 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Ao CH, Lee SC, Yu JZ, Xu JH (2004) Photodegradation of formaldehyde by photocatalyst TiO2: effects on the presences of NO, SO2 and VOCs. Appl Catal B Environ 54(1):41–50 CrossRef Google Scholar
Arnold K, Teixeira JP, Mendes A, Costa S, Salamova A (2018) A pilot study on semivolatile organic compounds in senior care facilities: implications for older adult exposures. Environ Pollut 240:908–915 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Audy O, Melymuk L, Venier M, Vojta S, Becanova J, Romanak K, Vykoukalova M, Proles R, Kukucka P, Diamond M, Klanova J (2018) PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in indoor environments: a comparison of indoor contamination in Canada and Czech Republic. Chemosphere 206:622–631 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Azuma K, Jinno H, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Sakai S (2020) Risk assessment concepts and approaches for indoor air chemicals in Japan. Int J Hyg Environ Health 225:113470 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Bai L, Chen W, He Z, Sun S, Qin J (2020) Pollution characteristics, sources and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 in an office building in northern areas, China. Sustain Cities Soc 53:101891 CrossRef Google Scholar
Balakrishnan K, Dey S, Gupta T, Dhaliwal RS, Brauer M, Cohen AJ et al (2019) The impact of air pollution on deaths, disease burden, and life expectancy across the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Planetary Health 3(1):e26–e39 CrossRef Google Scholar
Bräuner EV, Mayer P, Gunnarsen L, Vorkamp K, Raaschou-Nielsen O (2011) Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust. J Environ Monit 13(3):522–526 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Cao SJ, Cen D, Zhang W, Feng Z (2017) Study on the impacts of human walking on indoor particles dispersion using momentum theory method. Build Environ 126:195–206 CrossRef Google Scholar
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) (2011) Guidelines for the measurement of ambient air pollutants, NAAQS Monitoring & Analysis Guidelines, Volume-I Google Scholar
Chaemfa C, Barber JL, Kim KS, Harner T, Jones KC (2009) Further studies on the uptake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers. Atmos Environ 43(25):3843–3849 CrossRef Google Scholar
Chang J, Shen J, Tao J, Li N, Xu C, Li Y, Liu Z, Wang Q (2019) The impact of heating season factors on eight PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and cancer risk in Beijing. Sci Total Environ 688:1413–1421 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Chaudhuri A, Basu C, Bhattacharyya S, Chaudhuri P (2019) Development of health risk rating scale for indoor airborne fungal exposure. Arch Environ Occup Health 75:375–383 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Chen L, Liu C, Zhang L, Zou R, Zhang Z (2017) Variation in tree species ability to capture and retain airborne fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). Sci Rep 7(1):1–11 CrossRef Google Scholar
Chen XC, Ward TJ, Cao JJ, Lee SC, Lau NC, Yim SH, Ho KF (2019) Source identification of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) among adult residents of Hong Kong. Atmos Environ 218:116999 CrossRef Google Scholar
Chithra VS, Nagendra SS (2014) Characterizing and predicting coarse and fine particulates in classrooms located close to an urban roadway. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 64(8):945–956 CrossRef Google Scholar
De Kempeneer L, Sercu B, Vanbrabant W, Van Langenhove H, Verstraete W (2004) Bioaugmentation of the phyllosphere for the removal of toluene from indoor air. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64(2):284–288 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Deepthi Y, Nagendra SS, Gummadi SN (2019) Characteristics of indoor air pollution and estimation of respiratory dosage under varied fuel-type and kitchen-type in the rural areas of Telangana state in India. Sci Total Environ 650:616–625 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Dehghani MH, Zarei A, Farhang M, Kumar P, Yousefi M, Kim KH (2020) Levels of formaldehyde in residential indoor air of Gonabad, Iran. Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J 26(2):483–494 CrossRef Google Scholar
Dirtu AC, Covaci A (2010) Estimation of daily intake of organohalogenated contaminants from food consumption and indoor dust ingestion in Romania. Environ Sci Technol 44(16):6297–6304 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Dirtu AC, Ali N, Van den Eede N, Neels H, Covaci A (2012) Country specific comparison for profile of chlorinated, brominated and phosphate organic contaminants in indoor dust. Case study for eastern Romania, 2010. Environ Int 49:1–8 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Downward GS, Hu W, Rothman N, Reiss B, Wu G, Wei F, Chapman RS, Portengen L, Qing L, Vermeulen R (2014) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China. Environ Sci Technol 48(24):14632–14641 PubMed PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Du W, Yun X, Fu N, Qi M, Wang W, Wang L et al (2020) Variation of indoor and outdoor carbonaceous aerosols in rural homes with strong internal solid fuel combustion sources. Atmos Pollut Res.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.02.013
Elf JL, Kinikar A, Khadse S, Mave V, Suryavanshi N, Gupte N et al (2019) The association of household fine particulate matter and kerosene with tuberculosis in women and children in Pune, India. Occup Environ Med 76(1):40–47 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Embiale A, Zewge F, Chandravanshi BS, Sahle-Demessie E (2019) Short-term exposure assessment to particulate matter and total volatile organic compounds in indoor air during cooking Ethiopian sauces (Wot) using electricity, kerosene and charcoal fuels. Indoor Built Environ 28(8):1140–1154 CrossRef Google Scholar
Er CM, Sunar NM, Leman AM, Othman N, Kalthsom U, Jamal NA, Ideris NA (2016) The biocidal effect of potassium sorbate for indoor airborne fungi remediation. Desalin Water Treat 57(1):288–293 Google Scholar
Gautam S, Pillarisetti A, Yadav A, Singh D, Arora N, Smith K (2019) Daily average exposures to carbon monoxide from combustion of biomass fuels in rural households of Haryana, India. Environ Dev Sustain 21(5):2567–2575 CrossRef Google Scholar
Grabchenko M, Mikheeva NN, Mamontov GV, Salaev MA, Liotta LF, Vodyankina OV (2018) Ag/CeO2 composites for catalytic abatement of CO, soot and VOCs. Catalysts 8(7):285 CrossRef Google Scholar
Hadei M, Hopke PK, Rafiee M, Rastkari N, Yarahmadi M, Kermani M, Shahsavani A (2018) Indoor and outdoor concentrations of BTEX and formaldehyde in Tehran, Iran: effects of building characteristics and health risk assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(27):27423–27437 CrossRef Google Scholar
Hamid N, Syed JH, Junaid M, Mahmood A, Li J, Zhang G, Malik RN (2018) Elucidating the urban levels, sources and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Pakistan: implications for changing energy demand. Sci Total Environ 619:165–175 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Harrad S, Wijesekera R, Hunter S, Halliwell C, Baker R (2004) Preliminary assessment of UK human dietary and inhalation exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Sci Technol 38(8):2345–2350 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Hystad P, Duong M, Brauer M, Larkin A, Arku R, Kurmi OP et al (2019) Health effects of household solid fuel use: findings from 11 countries within the prospective urban and rural epidemiology study. Environ Health Perspect 127(5):057003 PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Irga PJ, Pettit T, Irga RF, Paull NJ, Douglas AN, Torpy FR (2019) Does plant species selection in functional active green walls influence VOC phytoremediation efficiency? Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(13):12851–12858 CrossRef Google Scholar
Jan R, Roy R, Yadav S, Satsangi PG (2016) Exposure assessment of children to particulate matter and gaseous species in school environments of Pune, India. Build Environ 111:207–217 CrossRef Google Scholar
Jorundsdottir HO, Jensen S, Hylland K (2014) Pristine Arctic: background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment. Sci Total Environ 20:719–728 CrossRef Google Scholar
Lai TC, Chiang CY, Wu CF, Yang SL, Liu DP, Chan CC, Lin HH (2016) Ambient air pollution and risk of tuberculosis: a cohort study. Occup Environ Med 73(1):56–61 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Lawrence AJ, Khan T, Azad I (2020) Indoor air quality assessment and its impact on health in context to the household conditions in Lucknow. Global NEST J 22(1):28–41 Google Scholar
Liao J, Ye W, Pillarisetti A, Clasen TF (2019) Modeling the impact of an indoor air filter on air pollution exposure reduction and associated mortality in urban Delhi household. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16(8):1391 PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Lueker J, Bardhan R, Sarkar A, Norford L (2019) Indoor air quality among Mumbai’s resettled populations: comparing Dharavi slum to nearby rehabilitation sites. Build Environ 167:106419 CrossRef Google Scholar
Madureira J, Slezakova K, Silva AI, Lage B, Mendes A, Aguiar L, Pereira MC, Teixeira JP, Costa C (2020) Assessment of indoor air exposure at residential homes: inhalation dose and lung deposition of PM10, PM2.5 and ultrafine particles among newborn children and their mothers. Sci Total Environ 717:137293 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Maharana SP, Paul B, Garg S, Dasgupta A, Bandyopadhyay L (2018) Exposure to indoor air pollution and its perceived impact on health of women and their children: a household survey in a slum of Kolkata, India. Indian J Public Health 62(3):182 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Maji P, Kandlikar M (2020) Quantifying the air quality, climate and equity implications of India's household energy transition. Energy Sustain Dev 55:37–47 CrossRef Google Scholar
Martins NR, da Graça GC (2018) Impact of PM2.5 in indoor urban environments: a review. Sustain Cities Soc 42:259–275 CrossRef Google Scholar
Masih A, Lall AS, Taneja A, Singhvi R (2016) Inhalation exposure and related health risks of BTEX in ambient air at different microenvironments of a terai zone in North India. Atmos Environ 147:55–66 CrossRef Google Scholar
Megson D, O’Sullivan G, Comber S, Worsfold PJ, Lohan MC, Edwards MR, Shields WJ, Sandau CD, Patterson DG Jr (2013) Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset. Sci Total Environ 461:99–107 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Miyawaki J, Lee GH, Yeh J, Shiratori N, Shimohara T, Mochida I, Yoon SH (2012) Development of carbon-supported hybrid catalyst for clean removal of formaldehyde indoors. Catal Today 185(1):278–283 CrossRef Google Scholar
Mo YY, Tang YK, Wang SY, Lin JM, Zhang HB, Luo DY (2015) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using eucalyptus leaf extract. Mater Lett 144:165–167 CrossRef Google Scholar
Nayek S, Padhy PK (2020) Personal exposure to VOCs (BTX) and women health risk assessment in rural kitchen from solid biofuel burning during cooking in West Bengal, India. Chemosphere 244:125447 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Pant P, Guttikunda SK, Peltier RE (2016) Exposure to particulate matter in India: a synthesis of findings and future directions. Environ Res 147:480–496 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Pettit T, Irga PJ, Abdo P, Torpy FR (2017) Do the plants in functional green walls contribute to their ability to filter particulate matter? Build Environ 125:299–307 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pettit T, Irga PJ, Torpy FR (2018) Functional green wall development for increasing air pollutant phytoremediation: substrate development with coconut coir and activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 360:594–603 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Pettit T, Irga PJ, Surawski NC, Torpy FR (2019) An assessment of the suitability of active green walls for NO2 reduction in green buildings using a closed-loop flow reactor. Atmosphere 10(12):801 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pokhrel AK, Bates MN, Verma SC, Joshi HS, Sreeramareddy CT, Smith KR (2010) Tuberculosis and indoor biomass and kerosene use in Nepal: a case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 118(4):558–564 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Pongpiachan S (2016) Incremental lifetime cancer risk of PM2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) before and after the wildland fire episode. Aerosol Air Qual Res 16(11):2907–2919 CrossRef Google Scholar
Popek R, Gawrońska H, Wrochna M, Gawroński SW, Sæbø A (2013) Particulate matter on foliage of 13 woody species: deposition on surfaces and phytostabilisation in waxes: a 3-year study. Int J Phytoremediation 15(3):245–256 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Rohra H, Tiwari R, Khandelwal N, Taneja A (2018) Mass distribution and health risk assessment of size segregated particulate in varied indoor microenvironments of Agra, India: a case study. Urban Clim 24:139–152 CrossRef Google Scholar
Romagnoli P, Balducci C, Perilli M, Gherardi M, Gordiani A, Gariazzo C, Gatto MP, Cecinato A (2014) Indoor PAHs at schools, homes and offices in Rome, Italy. Atmos Environ 92:51–59 CrossRef Google Scholar
Rumchev K, Zhao Y, Spickett J (2017) Health risk assessment of indoor air quality, socioeconomic and house characteristics on respiratory health among women and children of Tirupur, South India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(4):429 PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Ryu DY, Shimohara T, Nakabayashi K, Miyawaki J, Park JI, Yoon SH (2019) Urea/nitric acid co-impregnated pitch-based activated carbon fiber for the effective removal of formaldehyde. J Ind Eng Chem 80:98–105 CrossRef Google Scholar
Sahu V, Gurjar BR (2019) Spatio-temporal variations of indoor air quality in a university library. Int J Environ Health Res.   https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2019.1668916
Saini J, Dutta M, Marques G (2020) A comprehensive review on indoor air quality monitoring systems for enhanced public health. Sustain Environ Res 30:6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Seo J, Kato S, Ataka Y, Chino S (2009) Performance test for evaluating the reduction of VOCs in rooms and evaluating the lifetime of sorptive building materials. Build Environ 44(1):207–215 CrossRef Google Scholar
Shah V, Shah M, Shah P (2013) Use of Vetiver material to provide shades, cooling, humidification and air filteration for residential, commercial, indoor and outdoor facilities. U.S. Patent Application 13/214700 Google Scholar
Sharma D, Jain S (2020) Carcinogenic risk from exposure to PM2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural settings. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 190:110135 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Siswanto D, Permana BH, Treesubsuntorn C, Thiravetyan P (2020) Sansevieria trifasciata and Chlorophytum comosum botanical biofilter for cigarette smoke phytoremediation in a pilot-scale experiment-evaluation of multi-pollutant removal efficiency and CO2 emission. Air Qual Atmos Health 13(1):109–117 CrossRef Google Scholar
Smith GS, Van Den Eeden SK, Garcia C, Shan J, Baxter R, Herring AH, Richardson DB, Rie AV, Emch M, Gammon MD (2016) Air pollution and pulmonary tuberculosis: a nested case–control study among members of a northern California health plan. Environ Health Perspect 124(6):761–768 PubMed PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Suarez H, Ramirez A, Bueno-Alejo CJ, Hueso JL (2019) Silver-copper oxide Heteronanostructures for the plasmonic-enhanced photocatalytic oxidation of N-hexane in the visible-NIR range. Materials 12(23):3858 PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Takigami H, Suzuki G, Hirai Y, Sakai SI (2009) Brominated flame retardants and other polyhalogenated compounds in indoor air and dust from two houses in Japan. Chemosphere 76(2):270–277 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Tan H, Wang J, Yu S, Zhou K (2015) Support morphology-dependent catalytic activity of Pd/CeO2 for formaldehyde oxidation. Environ Sci Technol 49(14):8675–8682 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Taştan M, Gökozan H (2019) Real-time monitoring of indoor air quality with internet of things-based E-nose. Appl Sci 9(16):3435 CrossRef Google Scholar
Thevenet F, Debono O, Rizk M, Caron F, Verriele M, Locoge N (2018) VOC uptakes on gypsum boards: sorption performances and impact on indoor air quality. Build Environ 137:138–146 CrossRef Google Scholar
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2009) Risk assessment guidance for superfund, vol 1: Human health evaluation manual (Part F, supplemental guidance for inhalation risk assessment). EPA/540/R-070/002. USEPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC Google Scholar
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2011) Exposure factors handbook 2011 edition (final). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC Google Scholar
Viecco M, Vera S, Jorquera H, Bustamante W, Gironás J, Dobbs C, Leiva E (2018) Potential of particle matter dry deposition on green roofs and living walls vegetation for mitigating urban atmospheric pollution in semiarid climates. Sustainability 10(7):2431 CrossRef Google Scholar
World Health Organisation (WHO) (2018) Household air pollution and health. Fact sheets. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/household-air-pollution-and-health
World Health Organization (WHO) (2010) WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants, the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office. http://www.euro.who.int/data/assets/pdffile/0009/128169/e94535.pdf
Xu C, Liu L (2018) Personalized ventilation: one possible solution for airborne infection control in highly occupied space? Indoor Built Environ 27:873–876 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yadav IC, Devi NL, Li J, Zhang G (2017) Occurrence and source apportionment of halogenated flame retardants in the indoor air of Nepalese cities: implication on human health. Atmos Environ 161:122–131 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yadav IC, Devi NL, Kumar A, Li J, Zhang G (2020) Airborne brominated, chlorinated and organophosphate ester flame retardants inside the buildings of the Indian state of Bihar: exploration of source and human exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 191:110212 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Yadav IC, Devi NL, Li J, Zhang G (2020a) Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorines pesticides in indoor dust: an exploration of sources and health exposure risk in a rural area (Kopawa) of Nepal. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 195:110376 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yang J, Li D, Zhang Z, Li Q, Wang H (2000) A study of the photocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde on Pt/Fe2O3/TiO2. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 137(2–3):197–202 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yaparla D, Nagendra SS, Gummadi SN (2019) Characterization and health risk assessment of indoor dust in biomass and LPG-based households of rural Telangana, India. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 69(12):1438–1451 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yu K, Qiu G, Chan KH, Lam KBH, Kurmi OP, Bennett DA et al (2018) Association of solid fuel use with risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in rural China. JAMA 319(13):1351–1361 PubMed PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar
Zhang W, Ye Y, Hu D, Ou L, Wang X (2010) Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff. J Environ Monit 12(11):2153–2160 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar
Zhang X, Xiao H, Hu X, Gui Y (2016) Effects of background gas on sulfur hexafluoride removal by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma. AIP Adv 6(11):115005 CrossRef Google Scholar
Copyright information

Read the rest of this article here