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Variable speed technology for HVAC

Variable speed technology for HVAC

Environmental impact
 
Energy efficiency is no longer an option. Energy regulations are strengthening. Building energy codes and standards are developed globally and energy incentives are getting more attention. Another global issue is the energy security. How to make sure that we will not lack of energy one day?
HVAC and refrigeration systems are usually designed for peak demand which represent only a small percentage of the actual operation. Such oversizing leads to efficiency losses and extra costs for oversized equipment. Energy efficient capacity modulation is a way to match cooling capacity to cooling demand thereby matching these application requirements.
Modulating technologies
There are several ways to modulate the cooling capacity in refrigeration or air conditioning and heating systems. The most famous common in air conditioning are: on-off cycling, hot gas bypass, manifold configurations of multiple compressors, mechanical modulation (also called digital) and inverter technology. Each has advantages and drawbacks.
On-off cycling: results in switching off the fixed-speed compressor under light load conditions and could lead to short cycling and the reduction in compressor lifetime. Efficiency of the unit is reduced by pressure cycling and transient losses. The turndown capacity is 100% or 0%.
Hot gas bypass: involves bypassing a quantity of gas from discharge to the suction side. The compressor will keep operating at the same speed but thanks to the bypass, the refrigerant mass flow circulating with the system is reduced and thus the cooling capacity. This naturally causes the compressor to run uselessly during the periods where the bypass is operating. The turndown capacity varies between 0 and 100%.
Manifold configurations: several compressors can be installed in the system to provide the peak cooling capacity. Each compressor can run or not in order to stage the cooling capacity of the unit. The turndown capacity is either 0/33/66 or 100% for an even trio configuration and either 0/50 or 100% for a tandem.
Mechanically modulated compressor: this internal mechanical capacity modulation is based on periodic compression process with a control valve, the 2 scroll set move apart stopping the compression for a given time period. This method varies refrigerant flow by changing the average time of compression, but not the actual speed of the motor. Despite an excellent turndown ratio – from 10 to 100% of the cooling capacity, mechanically modulated scrolls have high energy consumption as the motor continuously runs.
Inverter compressor: uses a variable frequency drive – also known as inverter drive– to slow down or speed up the motor that rotates the compressor. This method varies refrigerant flow by actually changing the speed of the compressor. The turndown ratio depends on the system configuration and manufacturer. It modulates from 10% (depending on the compressor model) up to 100% at full capacity with a single inverter.
 
Inverter drive improve power factor and boosts grid supply quality
Air-conditioning is responsible for approximately 20% of the total annual electricity consumption in a country like the USA. The introduction of inverter drive technology in air-conditioning and heat pump systems presents an opportunity for significant energy savings due to efficient part-load operation, and also helps improve power quality of the grid. 
Power factor is an important measure of how hard the power utility must work to deliver electricity. 
Increasing the power factor of installations can directly impact the quality of power supply. For electric utilities, this equates to fewer losses and improved reliability of service. For building- and homeowners, this means more efficient equipment with the possibility of local utility, state and/or federal incentive programs. 
Power factor is the combination of the displacement power factor (displacement of active and reactive power) and the distortion power factor (distortion of the electrical power due to harmonics).
Power factor close to 1 means:
No interference with other installed equipment,
No interference with the mains, 
Reduced losses and higher efficiency. 
 
The use of inverter drives allows a significant enhancement in power factor, since the displacement power factor is close to 1. The distortion power factor however negatively affects transformers, cabling, fuses and circuit breakers due to harmonics. 
The Danfoss inverter technology has a low distortion and high power factor (0.98) due to correction from a DC choke whilst other inverter frequency drives or mechanically modulated systems can have a power factor as low as 0.60. 
Other benefits of the prequalified drive correction in Danfoss inverter solutions: 
Boosts the immediate circuit voltage whenever necessary which improves operating capabilities at low supply voltages. 
Increases voltage within the AC inductor, reducing current and stress throughout the entire chain of power components while minimizing costs. 
The higher DC-link voltage reduces motor current and losses. 
The Active Power Factor Correction (PFC) can be switched on and off as desired for best system efficiency.
Working principle
An inverter compressor is designed to operate with a drive which steplessly adjusts the speed of the compressor motor to deliver the cooling need.
It can either be a scroll, rotary or reciprocating, semi-hermetic, open compressors, including screw, centrifugal and axial compressors. This type of compressor uses a special drive to control the compressor motor speed (measured in round per second RPS). Inverter compressors can operate at different speeds: the inverter compressor is specifically designed to run at different motor speeds thereby generating a modulated refrigerant mass oil flow and cooling output.
The variable frequency drive indicates the cooling requirement to the compressor motor. The motor continuously adapts speed to produce more or less cooling capacity to match the exact cooling need. The combination of the two devices – compressor and drive – gives a continuous cooling modulation. The variable speed principle requires a very sturdy compressor for full speed running and a special compressor lubrication system for systems using oil. Excellent oil management is a critical requirement to secure compressor lifetime. The oil management system guarantees good lubrication of the scroll set at low speed and prevents excess oil from being injected into the circuit when operating at full speed to maintain a perfect Oil Circulation Ratio.
Products
Danfoss inverter scroll compressors for commercial air conditioning use variable-speed technology to deliver the highest possible cooling capacity and energy efficiency.
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Danfoss reciprocating inverter compressors avoid oversized and short cycling systems. The compressor automatically adapts to the current load. By combining an efficient Danfoss Maneurop® reciprocating compressor with a Danfoss Drive, we provide an innovative and intelligent package that utilizes variable-speed technology to ensure superior efficiency across the entire operating range for precision cooling. 
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Danfoss is the leading manufacturer of oil-free compressors and is the pioneer of the Danfoss Turbocor® compressor - the world’s first oil-free magnetic bearing compressor for the HVAC industry.
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Danfoss Turbocor® model TG oil free compressors are available in four different models ranging from 40 tons to 150 tons / 140 kW to 540kW utilizing ultra-low GWP HFO1234ze.
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Danfoss Turbocor® model TT oil free compressors are available in four different models ranging from 60 tons to 200 tons / 200 to 700 kW utilizing R134a or non-flammable, low GWP R513A. 
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Variable-speed inverter scroll compressors
Danfoss inverter scroll compressors for commercial air conditioning use variable-speed technology to deliver the highest possible cooling capacity and energy efficiency.
Reciprocating inverter - VTZ
Danfoss reciprocating inverter compressors avoid oversized and short cycling systems. The compressor automatically adapts to the current load. By combining an efficient Danfoss Maneurop® reciprocating compressor with a Danfoss Drive, we provide an innovative and intelligent package that utilizes variable-speed technology to ensure superior efficiency across the entire operating range for precision cooling. 
Turbocor®
Danfoss is the leading manufacturer of oil-free compressors and is the pioneer of the Danfoss Turbocor® compressor - the world’s first oil-free magnetic bearing compressor for the HVAC industry.
Turbocor® - TG
Danfoss Turbocor® model TG oil free compressors are available in four different models ranging from 40 tons to 150 tons / 140 kW to 540kW utilizing ultra-low GWP HFO1234ze.
Turbocor® - TT
Danfoss Turbocor® model TT oil free compressors are available in four different models ranging from 60 tons to 200 tons / 200 to 700 kW utilizing R134a or non-flammable, low GWP R513A. 
Related applications
At Danfoss we have all the refrigeration solutions, experience and know-how to act as a competent and trustworthy partner for the global air drying industry.
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Air dryers
At Danfoss we have all the refrigeration solutions, experience and know-how to act as a competent and trustworthy partner for the global air drying industry.
Learning
Part 2: Installation and troubleshooting, VZH, 2nd generation of inverter compressors
Case studies
The new Alsik hotel in Southern Denmark sets a higher standard in energy-efficiency and is built to reach 76% CO₂-neutrality. A main contributor is the 900-kW chillers by Clint (a company of G.I. Industrial Holding) which features award-winning Danfoss Turbocor oil-free compressors.
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Danfoss conducted a study to see how long term operation affected performance on Danfoss Turbocor® compressors. The results showed that oil-free, magnetic bearing compressors maintained consistent performance even after 10+ years of operation.
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Management of water and wastewater is a major issue in the central highlands of Arizona, which gets only about 12 inches of precipitation a year. To handle growing water demands, the City devised a strategic water management plan that included creating a modern municipal water system with effective monitoring, control and pumping technology – a development made possible by Danfoss variable frequency drives (VFDs).
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VFDs are used for a wide range of motors, not just RTU fan motors. Danfoss was able to pre-program the VLT® Micro Drive specifically for RTU applications and offer it to contractors. Because the programming work is done upfront, the contractor simply mounts the drive inside the RTU, wires it up, and enters the nameplate installation. Most mechanical contractors can do the job in about half a day.
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The Danfoss Turbocor® TG310 compressor is the first 60-90TR compressor introduced with R1234ze refrigerant, a refrigerant with an extremely low global warming potential.
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The benefits of inverter air conditioners include energy efficiency in buildings, lower energy consumption, running costs and impact on power grid, accurate comfort and high quality in process.
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Denmark's new climate-friendly hospitality giant depends on Turbocor® oil-free chiller
The new Alsik hotel in Southern Denmark sets a higher standard in energy-efficiency and is built to reach 76% CO₂-neutrality. A main contributor is the 900-kW chillers by Clint (a company of G.I. Industrial Holding) which features award-winning Danfoss Turbocor oil-free compressors.
Oil-free compressors maintain consistent performance over time
Danfoss conducted a study to see how long term operation affected performance on Danfoss Turbocor® compressors. The results showed that oil-free, magnetic bearing compressors maintained consistent performance even after 10+ years of operation.
Utility’s Growth Fueled by VFD's
Management of water and wastewater is a major issue in the central highlands of Arizona, which gets only about 12 inches of precipitation a year. To handle growing water demands, the City devised a strategic water management plan that included creating a modern municipal water system with effective monitoring, control and pumping technology – a development made possible by Danfoss variable frequency drives (VFDs).
VLT® Micro Drives help Vermont small businesses boost efficiency for rooftop HVAC
VFDs are used for a wide range of motors, not just RTU fan motors. Danfoss was able to pre-program the VLT® Micro Drive specifically for RTU applications and offer it to contractors. Because the programming work is done upfront, the contractor simply mounts the drive inside the RTU, wires it up, and enters the nameplate installation. Most mechanical contractors can do the job in about half a day.
Oil-free centrifugal compressors: from R134a to R1234ze
The Danfoss Turbocor® TG310 compressor is the first 60-90TR compressor introduced with R1234ze refrigerant, a refrigerant with an extremely low global warming potential.
College comfort
The benefits of inverter air conditioners include energy efficiency in buildings, lower energy consumption, running costs and impact on power grid, accurate comfort and high quality in process.
News
Coolselector®2 is essential software for engineers, consultants, and system designers who work in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. Using Coolselector®2, you can easily optimize energy consumption and increase efficiency in your HVACR system — simply run calculations based on your operating conditions and then choose the best component setup for your design.
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How does reduction of methane production in beef cattle and the transformation of biogas into clean fuel for heavy vehicles link to efficient buildings enabled by Danfoss? They are all endorsed by the World Alliance for Efficient Solutions.
","StartDate":null,"EndDate":null,"Location":null,"EventTypes":null,"HasErrors":false,"HasWarnings":false,"Errors":[],"Warnings":[]},{"Id":"https://danfoss-webex-umbraco-prodblue.azurewebsites.net/en-us/about-danfoss/news/cf/danfoss-awarded-for-product-innovation-during-30th-edison-award-gala-dinner/","FormattedStartDate":"Thursday, April 27, 2017","FormattedEndDate":null,"Link":{"NewWindow":false,"Url":"/en-us/about-danfoss/news/cf/danfoss-awarded-for-product-innovation-during-30th-edison-award-gala-dinner/"},"IsExternalLink":false,"Title":"Danfoss awarded for product innovation during 30th Edison Award Gala Dinner","Image":"/media/7724/edison-award_sm.jpg","ImageAltText":"Danfoss recognized for its innovative Turbocor® VTT compressor, receives award during ceremony in New York City","Description":"
Danfoss recognized for its innovative Turbocor® VTT compressor, receives award during ceremony in New York City
","StartDate":null,"EndDate":null,"Location":null,"EventTypes":null,"HasErrors":false,"HasWarnings":false,"Errors":[],"Warnings":[]}]" data-group-type="news" data-check-all-label="Explore more" data-redirect-url="" >
Coolselector®2: We did complex. You do awesome.
Wednesday, March 20, 2019
Coolselector®2 is essential software for engineers, consultants, and system designers who work in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. Using Coolselector®2, you can easily optimize energy consumption and increase efficiency in your HVACR system — simply run calculations based on your operating conditions and then choose the best component setup for your design.
VLT® HVAC Drive joins exclusive company of 1000 Efficient Solutions globally
Tuesday, July 17, 2018
How does reduction of methane production in beef cattle and the transformation of biogas into clean fuel for heavy vehicles link to efficient buildings enabled by Danfoss? They are all endorsed by the World Alliance for Efficient Solutions.
Danfoss awarded for product innovation during 30th Edison Award Gala Dinner
Thursday, April 27, 2017
Danfoss recognized for its innovative Turbocor® VTT compressor, receives award during ceremony in New York City
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